Ongoing research

Backström Group

Since the Modern Synthesis, when Darwin’s model of evolution by natural selection was combined with principles of chromosome inheritance and population genetic theory, it has been appreciated that genetic approaches are central for our understanding of local adaptation and the forces that drive population differentiation and speciation. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Examples of core questions that still are largely unresolved are: What genetic elements underlie adaptations and population differentiation and how are they distributed over the genome? How many loci are involved and what proportional effect does each locus have? How important is epistasis and pleiotropy in general and in specific cases? What are the causes and consequences of molecular factors like mutation, recombination, gene conversion and chromosome rearrangements? Are functional changes the result of expression differences or structural changes? Our research aims at understanding the genetic underpinnings of local adaptation, population differentiation and speciation and to quantify how variation in karyotype structure and recombination rate affect the genome and the potential for adaptation. We address these questions using both classical genetic methods and new genomic tools.

Birds and butterflies demonstrate a copious diversity in phenotypic traits and adaptations. They are widespread, generally abundant and often eye-catching. As a result, birds and butterflies have for long been tractable study organisms in ecology, hybrid zone dynamics and speciation research. Many of these ecological model systems have now reached a point where data on species-specific behavior, morphology and ecology can be combined with large-scale molecular investigations. In an international collaborative framework we have formulated hypotheses to answer key questions related to reproductive isolation, local adaptation, genome evolution and conservation practices in a set of systems including recently to moderately diverged populations and species; wood white (Leptidea sp.) butterflies, the painted lady (Vanessa cardui), the clouded apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne) and Assmann's fritillary (Melitaea britomartis).

A collection of pictures from lab, conferences, field work and other occasions:

Field work on Öland 2022.

Field work on Öland 2022.

Writing retreat at Klubban 2022.

Celebrating Karin handing in her thesis with a outdoor lunch 2022.

Karin and opponent Simon Martin at the PhD-dissertation 2023-02-10.

Papers accepted - some celebration, 2022.

The group constellation around 2021.

Game night on zoom.

Hiking and birding in Hammarskog on a cold and windy day. Good cooking!

Parnassius mnemosyne - the clouded apollo, our new study species!

Hallmark of 2020 - another lab meeting on zoom. Photo: Daria Shipilina.

Intense days in the lab during summer 2020. Photo: Aleix Palahi.

Celebrating Guy Fawkes failed gunpowder plot. 20201105.

Word cloud of abstracts from lab papers.

Some field and lab pics from Uppsala and Catalonia.

Bird watching stop at Fysingen en route Stockholm Uni.

Field work in Catalonia and Conference talk in Bangalore, India.

Looking for Vanessa cardui in the pre-Pyrenees.

Study species Vanessa cardui (top) and Leptidea sinapis (bottom).

In the midst of a pretty massive selection experiment in the butterfly lab.

Sampling in Catalonia (top 2), after-conference trip to Hokkaido and DNA prep in the lab.

The butterfly lab at EBC.

Field work in Catalonia.

Lab work, post-conference dinner in Yokohama, lab work and winter sport day.

Cross-country trip, rearing Vanessa larvae and selection experiment in the lab.

Vanessa cardui (top two), post-conference trip to Western Ghats (3rd) and sampling in Catalonia (bottom).

Another word cloud of lab paper abstracts.

Last modified: 2023-03-01