Qvarnström lab: publications

List of publications in peer-reviewed journals to present


101. Segami, J.C., Lind, M.I. and Qvarnström, A. 2021. Should females prefer old males? Evolution Letters. https://doi.org/10.1002/evl3.250

100. Bliard, L., A Qvarnström, A., Wheatcroft, D. 2021. The role of introductory alarm calls for song discrimination in Ficedula flycatchers. Animal Behaviour 177, 241-251.

99. McFarlane, S.E. & Ålund, M., Sirkiä, P. M., Qvarnström, A. 2021. Low heritability but significant early environmental effects on resting metabolic rate in a wild passerine. The American Naturalist 198 (4).

98. Butlin RK, Servedio, MR , Smadja, CM, Bank, C, Barton, CH, Flaxman, SM, 2021. Homage to Felsenstein 1981, or why are there so few/many species? Evolution 75 (5), 978-988.

97. Sirkiä, P.M. and Qvarnström, A. 2021. Adaptive coloration in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca)—The devil is in the detail. Ecology and evolution 11 (4), 1501-1525.


96. Villemereuil, P. et al. 2020 Fluctuating optimum and temporally variable selection on breeding date in birds and mammals. PNAS. 117, 31969–31978.

95. Mugal, C. F., Wang, M., Backström, N., Wheatcroft, D., Ålund, M., Sémon, M., McFarlane, S.E., Dutoit, L., Qvarnström, A. and Ellegren, H. 2020 Tissue-specific patterns of regulatory changes underlying gene expression differences among Ficedula flycatchers and their naturally occurring F 1 hybrids. Genome Research. 30, 1–13.

94. Koski, T.-M., Sirkiä, P. M., McFarlane, S. E., Ålund, M. & Qvarnström, A. 2020 Differences in incubation behaviour and niche separation of two competing flycatcher species. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 74 (8), 1-10.


93. Lindsay, W.R., Andersson, S., Bererhi, B., Höglund, J., Johnsen, A., Kvarnemo, C., Leder, E.H., Lifjeld, J.T., Ninnes, C.E., Olsson, M., Parker, G.A. Pizzari, T., Qvarnström, A., Safran, R.J., Svensson, O., Edwards, S.V. 2019. Endless forms of sexual selection. PEERJ 7, e7988.


92. Jones, W., Kulma, K., Bensch, S., Cichoń, M., Kerimov, A., Krist, M., Laaksonen, T., Moreno, J., Munclinger, P., Slater, F.M. and Szöllősi, E., Visser, M.E. & Qvarnström, A., 2018. Interspecific transfer of parasites following a range‐shift in Ficedula flycatchers. Ecology and Evolution, 8(23), pp.12183-12192.

91. Ålund, M., Schmiterlow-Persson, S., McFarlane, S.E. and Qvarnström, A. 2018. Optimal sperm length for high siring success depends on forehead patch size in collared flycatchers. Behavioral Ecology 29, 1436-1443.

90. McFarlane, S.E., Ålund, M., Sirkiä, M., and Qvarnström, A. 2018. Difference in plasticity of resting metabolic rate-the proximate explanation to different niche breadth in sympatric Ficedula flycatchers. Ecology and Evolution 8, 4575-4586.

89. Sirkiä, P.M., McFarlane, S.E., Jones, W., Wheatcroft, D., Ålund, M., Rybinski, J. and Qvarnström, A. 2018. Climate-driven build-up of temporal isolation within a recently formed avian hybrid zone. Evolution 72, 363-374


88. Silva, CNS., McFarlane, S.E., Hagen, I.J., Rönnegård, L., Billing, A.M., Kvalnes, T., Kemppainen, P., Rönning, B., Ringsby, T.H., Sæther, B.E., Qvarnström, A., Ellegren, H., Jensen, H., Husby, A. 2017. Insights into the genetic architecture of morphological traits in two passerine bird species. Heredity 119, 197-205.

87. Wheatcroft, D. and Qvarnström, A. 2017. Reproductive character displacement of females, but not male song discrimination in an avian hybrid zone. Evolution 71, 1776-1786.

86. Wheatcroft, D. and Qvarnström, A. 2017. Genetic divergence of early song discrimination between two young songbird species. Nature Ecology and Evolution 1, UNSP 0192.

85. Kardos, M., Qvarnström, A. and Ellegren H. 2017. Inferring individual inbreeding and demographic history from segments of identity by descent in Ficedula flycatcher genome sequences. Genetics 205, 1319-1334.

84. Marzal, J.C., Rudh, A., Rogell, B., Ödeen, A., Lovlie, H., Rosher, C, and Qvarnström, A. 2017. Cryptic female Strawberry poison frogs experience elevated predation risk when associating with an aposematic partner. Ecology and Evolution 7, 744-750.


83. Wheatcroft, D., Gallego-Abenza, M. and Qvarnström, A. 2016. Species replacement reduces community participation in avian antipredator groups. Behavioral Ecology, 27, 1499- 1506.

82. Rybinski, J., Sirkiä, P. M., McFarlane, S. E., Vallin, N., Wheatcroft, D., Ålund, M., and Qvarnström, A. 2016 Competition-driven build-up of habitat isolation and selection favoring modified dispersal patterns in a young avian hybrid zone. Evolution 70, 2226-2238. 19 / 263

81. McFarlane,S. E., Ålund, M., Sirkiä, P. and Qvarnström, A. 2016. Hybrid dysfunction expressed as elevated metabolic rate in male Ficedula flycatchers. PLoSONE: e0161547.

80. Smeds, L., Qvarnström, A. and Ellegren, H. 2016. Direct estimates of the rate of germline mutation in a bird. Genome Research, 26, 1211-1218.

79. Cramer, E. R. A., Ålund, M., McFarlane, S. E. Johnsen, A. and Qvarnström, A. 2016. Females discriminate against heterospecific sperm in a natural hybrid zone. Evolution 70: 1844-1855.

78. McFarlane, S. E., Söderberg, A., Wheatcroft, D. and Qvarnström, A. 2016. Song discrimitation by nestling collared flycatchers during early development. Biology Letters 12, Article number: 20160234

77.  Rönnegård, L., Mc Farlane, S.E., Husby, A., Kawakami, T., Ellegren, H., and Qvarnström, A. 2016. Increasing the power of genome wide association studies in natural populations using repeated measures – evaluation and implementation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 792-799.

76. Kardos, M., Husby, A., McFarlane, S.E., Qvarnström, A., and Ellegren, H. 2016.  Whole-genome resequencing of extreme phenotypes in collared flycatchers highlights the difficulty of detecting quantitative trait loci. Molecular Ecology Resources, 16: 727-741.

75. Qvarnström, A., Ålund, M., McFarlane S. E., Sirkiä, P. M. 2016. Climate adaptation and speciation: particular focus on reproductive barriers in Ficedula flycatchers. Evolutionary Applications 9, 119-134.


74. Burri, R., Nater, A.,  Kawakami, T., Mugal, C.F., Olason, P.I., Smeds, L., Suh, A., Dutoit, L., Bures, S., Garamszegi, L.Z., Hogner, S., Moreno, J., Qvarnström, A., Ruzic, M., Sæther, S.A., Sætre, G.-P., Torok, J., and Ellegren, H. 2015. Linked selection and recombination rate variation drive the evolution of the genomic landscape of differentiation across the speciation continuum of Ficedula flycatchers. Genome Research 25, 1656-1665.

73. Wheatcroft, D and Qvarnström, A. 2015. A blueprint for vocal learning: auditory predispositions from brains to genomes. Biology Letters 11, 20120155.

72. Smeds, L., Warmuth, V., Bolivar, P., Uebbing, S., Burri, R., Suh, A., Nater, A., Bures, S., Garamszegi, L., Hogner, S., Morena, J., Qvarnström, A., Ruzic, M., Sæther, S. A., Sætre G.-P., Török, J., and Ellgren, H. 2015. Evolutionary analysis of the female-specific avian W chromosome. Nature Communications, 6, 5448.

71. Husby, A., Kawakami, T., Rönnegård, L., Smeds, L., Ellegren, H. and Qvarnström, A. 2015. Genome-wide association mapping in a wild avian population identifies a link between genetic and phenotypic variation in a life-history trait. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 282, 20150156.


70. Smeds, L., Kawakami, T., Burri, R., Bolivar, P., Husby, A., Qvarnström, A., Uebbing, S., and Ellegren, H. 2014. Genomic identification and characterization of the pseudoautosomal region in highly differentiated avian sex chromosomes. Nature Communications 5, 5448.

69. Kawakami, T., Backström, N., Burri, R., Husby, A., Oloson, O., Rice, A.M., Ålund, M., Qvarnström, A. and Ellegren, H. 2014. Estimation of linkage disequilibrium and interspecific gene flow in Ficedula flycatchers by a newly developed 50k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Molecular Ecology Resources 6, 1248-1260.

68. Qvarnström, A., Rudh, A., Edström, T., Ödeen, A., Lovlie, H. and Tullberg, B.S. 2014. Coarse dark patterning functionally constrains adaptive shifts from aposematism to crypsis in Srawberry poison frogs. Evolution 68, 2793-2803.

67. Kawakami, T., Smeds, L., Backström, N., Husby, A., Qvarnström, A., Mugal, C.F., Olason, P. and Ellegren, H. 2014. A high-density linkage map enables a second-generation collared flycatcher genome assembly and reveals the patterns of avian recombination rate variation and chromosomal evolution. Molecular Ecology 23, 4035-4058.

66. Ruuskanen, S., Laaksonen, T., Morales, J., Moreno, J., Mateo, R., Belskii, E., Bushuev, A., Jarvinen, A., Kerimov, A., Krams, I., Morosinotto, C., mand, R., Orell, M., Qvarnström, A., Slater, F., Tilgar, V., Visser, M., Winkel, W., Zang, H. and Eeva, T. 2014. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca). Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21, 3304-3317.

65. Kulma, K., Low, M., Bensch, S. and Qvarnström, A. 2014. Malaria-infected female collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) do not pay the cost of late breeding. PLoS ONE 9, e85822.


64. Kulma K., Low M., Bensch S., Qvarnström A. 2013. Malaria infections reinforce competitive asymmetry between two Ficedula flycatchers in a recent contact zone. Molecular Ecology 22, 4591-4601

63. Rudh, A and Qvarnström, A. 2013. Adaptive coloration in amphibians. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 24, 553-561.

62. Rice, M.A., Vallin, N., Kumla, K, Arntsen, H., Husby, A., Tobler, M. and Qvarnström, A. 2013. Optimizing the trade-off between offspring number and quality in unpredictable environments: Testing the role of differential androgen transfer to collared flycatcher eggs. Hormones and Behavior 63, 813-822 

61. Ålund, M. Immler, S, Rice, A.M. and Qvarnström, A. 2013. Low fertility of wild hybrid male flycatchers despite recent divergence. Biology Letters 9, 20130169. 

60. Husby, A., Schielzeth, Forstmeier, W., Gustafsson, L., and Qvarnström, A. 2013. Sex chromosome linked genetic variance and the evolution of sexual dimorphism of quantitative traits. Evolution 67, 609-619.

59. Morales,J., Ruuskanen, S., Laaksonen, T., Eeva, T., Mateo, R., Belskii, E., Ivankina, E.V., Jarvinen, A., Kerimov, A., Korpimaki, E., Krams, I., Mand, R., Morosinotto, C., Orell, M., Qvarnström, A., Siitari, H., Slater, F.M., Tilgar, V., Visser, M.E., Winkel, W., Zang, H. and Moreno, J. 2013. Variation in eggshell traits between geographically distant populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. Journal of Avian Biology 44, 111-120. 

58. Vallin, N., Nonaka, Y., Feng, J and Qvarnström, A. 2013. Relative performance of hybrid nestlings in Ficedula flycatchers: a translocation experiment. Ecology and Evolution 3, 356-364 

57. Rudh, A., Breed, M. F. and Qvarnström, A. 2013. Does aggression and explorative behaviour decrease with lost warning coloration? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 108, 116-126.


56. Ellegren, H., Smeds, L., Burri, R., Olason, P.I., Backström, N., Kawakami, T., Kunstner, A., Makinene, H., Nadachowska-Brzyska, K, Qvarnström, A., Uebbing, S., Wolf, J.B.W. 2012. The genomic landscape of species divergence in Ficedula flycatchers. Nature  491, 756-760

55. Burger, C., Belskii, E., Eeva, T., Laaksonen, T., Magi, M, Mand, M.E., Qvarnström, A ., Slagsvold, T., Veen, T., Visser, M.E., Wiebe, K.L., Wile, C., Wright, J., Both, C. 2012. Climate change, breeding date and nestling diet: how temperature differentially affects seasonal changes in pied flycatcher diet depending on habitat variation. Journal of Animal Ecology 81, 926-936.

54. Vallin, N., Rice, A.M., Arntsen, H., Kulma, K. and Qvarnström, A. 2012. Combined effects of interspecific competition and hybridization impede local coexistence of Ficedula flycatchers. Evolutionary Ecology 26, 927-942.

53. Robinson, M., van Doorn S.G., Gustafsson, L. and Qvarnström, A. 2012. Environment-dependent selection on mate choice in a natural population of birds. Ecology Letters 15, 611-618.

52. Vallin, N., Rice, A. M., Bailey, R. I., Husby, A. and Qvarnström, A. 2012. Positive feedback between ecological and reproductive character displacement in a young avian hybrid zone. Evolution, 66, 1167-1179.

51. Qvarnström, A., Rudh, A., Vallin, N. 2012. The role of male contest competition in speciation. Current Zoology 58, 493-509. (invited contribution to special column on sexual selection and speciation ed. Maria Sevedio)

50. Husby, A., Gustafsson, L. and Qvarnström, A. 2012. Low genetic variance in the duration of the incubation period in a collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) population. American Naturalist 179, 132-136.


49. Vallin, N. and Qvarnström, A. 2011. Learning the hard way: imprinting can enhance enforced shifts in habitat choice. International Journal of Ecology 2011, article ID 287532 (doi:10.1155/2011/287532; invited contribution).

48. Ruuskanen, S., Siitari H., Eeva T., Belskii, E., Jarvinen, A., Kerimov, A., Krams, I., Moreno, J., Morosinotto, C., Mand, R., Mostl, E., Orellm M.,  Qvarnström, A. , Salminen, J.P., Slater, F., Tilgar, V., Visser, M.E., Winkel, W., Zsng, H., and Laassonen, T. 2011. Geografical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird. PLoS ONE 6, e25360

47. Pärt, T., Arlt, D.,Dologez, B., Low, M. and Qvarnström, A. 2011. Prospectors combine social and environmental information to improve habitat selection and breeding success in the subsequent year. Journal of Animal Ecology 80, 1227-1235.

46. Husby, A., Ekblom, R. and Qvarnström, A. 2011. Let’s talk turkey: immune competence in domestic and wild fowl. Heredity 107, 103-104.

45. Rudh, A., Rogell, B, Håstad, O. and Qvarnström, A. 2011. Rapid population divergence linked with co-variation between coloration and sexual display in strawberry poison frogs. Evolution 65, 1271-1282

44. Bailey, R.I., Innocenti, P. Morrow, E. H., Friberg, U. and Qvarnström, A. 2011. Female Drosophila melanogaster gene expression and mate choice: The X chromosome harbours candidate genes underlying sexual isolation. PLoS ONE 6, e17358.

43. Eeva, T., Ruuskanen, S., Salminen, J.-P., Belskii, E., Järvinen, A., Kerimov, A., Korpimäki, E., Krams, I., Moreno, J., Morosinotto, C., Mänd, R., Orell, M., Qvarnström, A, Siitari, H., Slater, F.M., Tilgar, V., Visser, M.E., Winkel, W., Zang, H. and Laaksonen, T. 2011. Geographical trends in the yolk carotenoid composition of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Oecologia 165, 277-287. 

42. Rice, A., Rudh, A. Ellegren, H. and Qvarnström, A. 2011 A guide to the genomics of ecological speciation in natural animal populations. Ecology Letters 14, 9-18.


41. Backström,N., Lindell, J., Zhang, Y., Palkopoulou, E., Qvarnström, A. , Sætre, G.-P. and Ellegren, H. 2010. A high-density scan of the Z chromosome in Ficedula flycatchers reveals candidate loci for diversifying selection. Evolution 64, 3461-3475.

40. Backström,N., Palkopoulou, E. Qvarnström, A. and Ellegren, H. 2010. No evidence for sex chromosome rearrangements associated with speciation in the pied flycatcher and collared flycatcher. Molecular Ecology 19, 3394-3405.

39. Qvarnström, A. Rice, A and Ellegren, H. 2010. Speciation in Ficedula flycatchers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London. B, 365, 1841-1852.

38. Veen, T., Sheldon, B. C., Weissing, F. J., Visser, M. E., Qvarnström, A. and Sætre G.-P. 2010. Temporal differences in food abundance promote coexistence between two congeneric passerines. Oecologia, 162, 873-884.


37. Qvarnström, A. Wiley, C., Svedin, N and Vallin, N. 2009. Life-history divergence facilitates regional coexistence of competing Ficedula flycatchers. Ecology 90, 1948-1957.

36. Wiley, C., Qvarnström, A. And Gustafsson, L. 2009. Effects of hybridization on the immunity of collared and pied flycatchers, and their infection by haemosporidians. Journal of Avian Biology 40, 352-357.

35. Wiley, C., Qvarnström, A. Andersson, G.,  Borge, T. and Sætre, G.-P. 2009. Postzygotic isolation over multiple generations of hybrid descendents in a natural hybrid zone: How well do single generation estimates reflect reproductive isolation? Evolution 63, 1737-173.

34. Qvarnström, A. and Bailey, R. I. 2009. Speciation through sex-linked genes. Heredity 102, 2-15 (invited contribution).


33. Backström, N., Karaiskou, N., Leder, E. H., Gustafsson, L. , Primmer, C. R., Qvarnström, A. and Ellegren, H. 2008. A gene-based genetic linkage map of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) reveals extensive synteny and gene-order conservation during 100 million years of avian evolution. Genetics 179, 1479-1495.

32. Svedin, N., Wiley, C., Veen, T., Gustafsson, L. & Qvarnström, A. 2008. Natural and Sexual selection against hybrid flycatchers. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 275, 735-744.


31. Sæther, S.A,  Sætre, G-P., Servedio, M.R., Svedin, N, Borge, T., Wiley, C., Haavie, J. Thor Veen, T., Hjernquist, M., Bures, S., Kral, Gustafsson, L, Träff, J. & Qvarnström. A. 2007. Sex chromosome- linked species recognition and evolution of reproductive isolation in flycatchers. Science 318, 95-97.

30. Brommer, J.E., Kirkpatrick, M., Qvarnström, A. & Gustafsson, L. 2007. The intersexual genetic correlation for lifetime fitness in the wild and its implications for sexual selection. PLoS One 2, e744.

29. Qvarnström, A.,Vogel Kehlenbeck , J., Wiley, C, Svedin, N & Sæther, S.A.,. 2007. Species divergence in offspring begging intensity: difference in need or manipulation of parents? Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 274, 1003-1008.

28. Wiley, C., Fogelberg, N., Sæther, S. A., Veen, T., Svedin, N., Vogel Kehlenbeck, J. & Qvarnström, A. 2007. Direct benefits and costs for hybridizing Ficedula flycatchers. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20, 854-864.

27. Veen, T., Svedin, N, Forsman, J., Hjernquist, M, Qvarnström, A., Thuman, K., Träff, J. & Klaassen, M. 2007 Does migration of hybrids contribute to post-zygotic isolation in flycatchers? Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 274, 707-712.


26. Qvarnström, A., Brommer, J.E.. & Gustafsson, L. 2006. Evolutionary genetics: Evolution of mate choice in the wild. Nature 444, e16-e17.

25. Backström, N., Brandström, M., Gustafsson, L., Qvarnström, A., Cheng, H. & Ellegren H 2006. Genetic mapping in a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis): Conserved Synteny but gene order rearrangements on the avian Z chromosome. Genetics 174, 377-386.

24. Backström, N., Brandström, M., Gustafsson, L., Qvarnström, A., & Ellegren H. 2006 Linkage mapping in a wild population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis): synteny conservation but gene order rearrangements on the avian Z chromosome. Biology Letters 2, 435-

23. Qvarnström, A, Brommer, J. & Gustafsson, L. 2006. Testing the genetics underlying the co-evolution of mate choice and ornament in the wild. Nature 441, 84-86.

22. Qvarnström, A, Haavie, J. Pärt, T., Sæther, S. A., Eriksson, D & Pärt, T. 2006. Song similarity predicts hybridization in flycatchers. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19, 1202-1209.

21. Gustafsson, L. & Qvarnström, A. 2006. A test of the sexy-son hypothesis: sons of polygynous collared flycatchers do not inherit their fathers’ mating status. American Naturalist 167, 297-302.


20. Wiley, C., Bengtson, J. M., Svedin, N. & Qvarnström, A. 2005. Hybridization cost of delayed maturation of secondary sexual traits in the collared flycatcher. Evolution 59, 2711-2716.

19. Qvarnström, A, Svedin, N, Wiley, C, Veen, T. and Gustafsson, L. 2005. Cross-fostering reveals seasonal changes in the relative fitness of two competing species of flycatchers. Biology Letters 1, 68-71.


18. Qvarnström, A, Blomgren, V, Wiley, C and Svedin, N. 2004. Female collared flycatchers learn to prefer males with an artificial novel ornament. Behavior Ecology 15, 543-548.

17. Haavie, J., Borge, T., Bures, S., Garamszegi, L. Z., Lampe, H. M., Moreno, J., Qvarnström, A., Török, J. & Sætre, G-P. 2004. Flycatcher song in allopatry and sympatry, convergence, divergence and reinforcement. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17, 227-237.

2000 - 2003

16. Price, TD, Qvarnström, A and Irwin, DE. 2003. The role of phenotypic plasticity in driving genetic evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 270, 1433-1440.

15. Qvarnström A, Sheldon BC, Pärt, T., and Gustafsson, L. 2003. Male ornamentation, timing of breeding and the cost of polygyny in the collared flycatcher. Behavioral Ecology 14, 68-73.

14. Badyaev, A.V. and Qvarnström, A. 2002. Putting sexual traits into the context of an organism: a life-history perspective in studies of sexual selection. Auk, 119, 302-310.

13. Qvarnström A. and Price, T. 2001 Maternal effects, paternal effects, and sexual selection. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 95-100.

12. Qvarnström, A. 2001. Context-dependent genetic benefits from mate choice. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 5-7.

11. Qvarnström, A, Griffith, S.C and Gustafsson, L. 2000. Male-male competition and parental care in collared flycatchers: an experiment controlling for differences in territory quality. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B, 267, 2547-2552.

10. Qvarnström A., Pärt, T. and Sheldon BC.2000. Adaptive plasticity in mate preference linked to differences in reproductive effort. Nature 405: 344-347.


9. Qvarnström A. 1999. Different reproductive tactics in male collared flycatchers signalled by size of secondary sexual character. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 266: 2089-2093

8. Qvarnström A.1999. Genotype-by-environment interactions in the determination of the size of a secondary sexual character in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). Evolution 53, 1564-1572.

7. Qvarnström A. 1998. Dominant males are bad parents. Scandinavian Journal of Sexology 1, 179-182.

6. Qvarnström A and Forsgren E. 1998. Should females prefer dominant males? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 498-501.

5. Qvarnström A. 1997. Experimentally enlarged badge size increases male competition and reduces male parental care in the collared flycatcher. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 264: 1225-1231.

4. Pärt T and Qvarnström A. 1997. Badge size in collared flycatchers predicts outcome of male competition over territories. Animal Behaviour 54: 893-899.

3. Sheldon B. C, Merilä J, Qvarnström A, Gustafsson L and Ellegren H. 1997. Paternal genetic contribution to offspring fitness predicted by the relative size of male secondary sexual character. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 264,: 297-302.

2. Gustafsson L, Qvarnström A and Sheldon B.C 1995. Trade-offs between life-history traits and a secondary sexual character in male collared flycatchers. Nature 375, 311-313.

1. Gustafsson L, Nordling D, Andersson M, Sheldon B and Qvarnström A. 1994. Infectious diseases, reproductive effort and the cost of reproduction in birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 346: 323-331.

Last modified: 2021-10-14